The present educational
system of the Philippines is the result of a long process of educational evolution.
the pre-Spanish period, education was informal. It means that there was no overruling agency that governs the educational
· The child is taught at
home by the parents or by some tribal tutor.
· The practice of apprenticeship, whereby a person usually learns some occupational skill from his parents or sent to somebody
as an apprentice who knows a certain job [say, a blacksmith]
· Institutionalized education
in the form of initiation rites and religious ceremonies. The priest called sonats provided a specialized training
for would-be priest.
We can safely assume that subjects of instruction that is being taught inside
the house deals with tribal rules/codes, instructions of faith [paganism, animism], basic counting system [I believe that
there should be since early Filipinos [or should we say Indio] were already exchanging trades with neighboring Asian countries],
and basic literacy [the Alibata, our local alphabet system and local language].
B. Spanish period
During the Spanish period, education became
organized. A major educational reform was affected that gives a complete educational
system for Filipinos.
The Early Part of the Spanish Regime
were set up for the upper social classes founded by Spaniards for the Spanish youth.
· Filipino boys and girls attended parochial schools.
The curriculum was predominantly religious.
The children learned Christian doctrine, sacred songs and music, and prayers required for the sacraments of confession and
communion. The 3 R’s were given to brighter students.
Other subjects includes (after 1863), the 3 R’s, history, Christian doctrine, the Spanish language, vocal music,
and agriculture for boys and needlework for girls
Decree of 1863
· A law that gave Filipinos
a complete system of education from elementary to collegiate level.
· Provided for the establishment of elementary schools, one
for boys and one for girls, in all municipalities of the country
Attendance in school were compulsory between the ages of seven and twelve
Secondary education was given at Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Ateneo Municipal de Manila and in seminaries.
Collegiate instruction was provided by the University of Santo Tomas.
Act No. 74
The Americans established
for the Filipinos a system of free public education.
In line with
this goals, the US sent a group of professionally trained American priest teachers, the Thomasites.
Act No. 372
required all provinces to maintain a provincial high
established during this period
Philippine Normal School
University of the Philippines
Constitutional Convention in 1935, Article XIV Section 5
A mandate that “….the government
shall establish and maintain a complete and adequate system of public education and shall provide at least free public primary
instructions and citizenship training to adult citizens.”
It was during this period that the
Filipinos came to adopt the American system of education as it was today.
The Philippine government established and maintained the elementary, secondary, and tertiary levels of education, the operations
of which was either by the government, or private persons or corporations. ( Please refer to our discussion of the present
system of Philippine education above.)
Education aimed at training Filipinos in the democratic way
of life, citizenship, moral character, fundamentals of vocational education and trained for self-government.
The Educational Act of 1940 Grade VII was eliminated.
Military Order No. 2, 1942
embodies the Japanese educational policies.
The teaching of Tagalog, Philippine History, and Character
Education was reserved for Filipinos. Love for work and dignity was emphasized.
The Educational System under the Martial Law Period
Presidential commission to Survey
Philippine Education (PCSPE)
was created by the President (F. Marcos) to study our educational system at that time which came up with policy and program
recommendations based on their findings.
Proclamation 1081, September 21, 1972
It started an educational reform based on the
findings of PCSPE. It was premised on the framework that education should be an integrated system as provided for in Section
8, Sub-section 1 of Article XI acronym, PLEDGES, which meant, peace and order, land reform, economic development, development
of moral values through educational reform, government reorganization, employment and manpower development and social services.
The ten (10) regular bureaus and institutes of the Ministry
Sports and Development
Institute of National
Technical Vocational Education
There was a reorganization of the Department of Education
and Culture, some offices were abolished or integrated with other offices, new ones were also created.